Re: Did the fact there was hardly any real Nazis in this film hurt it?
I'd rather steer clear of politics. But Captain America was very much a product of his time. Now, he has changed, that is true, but that's also because of how the character developed. He became much more "modern" by literally being brought into the modern world. They could have had fun with that.
Though I don't see why that matters here. He is an America icon, fighting, what was supposed to be a Nazi German icon. Now, you can certainly make an argument, that turning the Red Skull into a generic fascist gave the movie a broader market, or even improved the movie (I'd debate the latter), but it certainly doesn't make it any truer to the comics, old or new.
I am not expecting Saving Private Ryan with Captain America, but this is a period piece, and they are underusing the setting. They changed the characters. Making them rather bland in Red Skull's case.
Also, I really doubt anybody in modern-day Germany cares that the villains of a movie set during World War II are German. Especially in a movie based on a 70 year old comic book.