Originally Posted by metaphysician
I still say there's no reason it can't be Lukin *and* Hydra remnants: some portions of Hydra defected to the Soviets after the Red Skull was killed. The Soviets took advantage of these assets. Fast forward a decade or so, and the difference between "Soviet black ops program that has a bunch of ex-Hydra personnel and resources" and "Hydra Reborn, Soviet Union Edition" becomes narrow to the point of irrelevance.
That works since at the of WWII, both the US and the USSR were rounding up German scientists to keep them from falling into each other's hands.